play. This is achieved either through a waiting for an end or increasing reducedness and level of anxiety. This means attitude towards death: one regards it as an end of punishment, as seen in the cases of Hamm and Clov. As a consequence, becoming and BWO are present in Beckett’s plays in order to help man get a better understanding of non-being, and thus being.
Man’s inventing his own grand meaning for existence suggests authenticity in an existentialist sense. That is to say, when man re-unites and re-organizes his life in accordance with independently-chosen objectives, he becomes authentic; otherwise, he is inauthentic. The willful self-definition of man for authenticity is another major theme to be observed in Beckett’s plays. Firstly, the playwright provides the hopeless ground for the characters necessary to be able to perceive a deeper level of meaning for their existence and for their self-definition. However, all of the characters cannot completely succeed in defining their selves. Then, they fail to be authentic despite the convenient conditions created by the playwright in the plays. But Beckett makes his characters access authenticity to some extent in some instances, in the sense that they at least try to avoid becoming inauthentic. To illustrate, these characters refuse to end, finish or quit what they are doing, and thus they seem to have re-centred their lives around the new objectives of being purposeless and resisting the void to bear the heavy burden of anxiety. This may be Beckett’s way to attain authenticity. Beckett makes somewhat authentic characters out of Nell and Nagg, too. They live as happily as they can despite their dreadful situation of being confined in ashbins. In this manner, they re-centre their lives around living without despair and delusion. Consequently, it is necessary for man to realize how futile it is to busy himself with some dismal deeds to attain authenticity in a condition which has shaken his very ground of being. In a full Deleuze’s sense, authenticity is not attained by Beckett’s characters in his plays. However, in Beckett authenticity takes another shape, and is achieved by his characters to some extent. In other words, it is suggested that being at least on the way to authenticity might be regarded as becoming authentic.
The inescapable fact of coming into such a world is itself displayed as an example of being forlorn for all the characters. They all have to confront the ruthless fact that they are in the world with no God, and they have to confront the consequences of this situation. Naturally being forlorn also leads to anger and despair. And despair appears as an outcome of uncertainty and incomprehensibility in man’s life. Beckett creates such settings in the plays that there seems to be few vestiges of life after a possible catastrophe. Besides, all the characters are devoid of the many attributes of an ordinary man. For instance, they lack the ability of complete communication with either the other characters or God. Then, these give an air of despondency to the plays, which approximates Beckett to Deleuze’s theme of becoming in order to escape the world of being.
Lastly, becoming and BWO have been investigated through Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Not I. Nothingness is a necessity for man to define himself for Deleuze. Likewise, Beckett reduces everything in his two plays like setting, characters and language to the level of non-existence. In this way, he opens a door for his characters, and also for the people who read or watch them, so as to ‘explore self’ through the negative. Apart from these, Beckett plays with consciousness as a potential nothingness in the plays. Consequently, the more nothingness is approached by the characters, the more becoming becomes probable for both Beckett and Deleuze.
All plays share some Deleuzean projrcts in common. However, when compared with each other in terms of their relation and closeness to the view of Deleuze, Endgame is likely to be seen as more Deleuzean. That is because, Endgame is more minimalistic and barren than the other play in terms of the number of characters, physical abilities of the characters, setting, the number of the objects on the stage, and lastly the language, especially the shortened dialogues, besides intensified suffering. All these mark Endgame as much more Deleuzean in comparison. Similarly, the character Hamm in Endgame might read as the most Deleuzean character with respect to his inability to move, his deeds to busy himself and his self-questioning, which he often escapes.
Samuel Beckett maintains a Deleuzean outlook in his plays Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Not I due to the fact that the playwright employs some Deleuzean themes such as becoming, nomad character, smooth space, and BWO. Reduced language, characters which are not developed, weird setting and lack of a conventional plot are the characteristics which make Beckett different from the other playwrights.
Evident from the Beckettian characterization, setting and use of language in Endgame, Not I, and Krapp’s Last Tape, Samuel Beckett writes on some Deleuzean themes like becoming, BWO, nomad character, and smooth space which discloses his inclination toward Deleuze. In this way, the Beckettian characters in the plays display a state of suffering in which they are indeed experiencing a difficult journey to becoming although the plays are almost reduced to immobility. None of his characters can attain full authenticity in the plays since Beckett’s plays are closed to change. However, the frozen pictures of extraordinary characters, who are exposed to the unbearable tiredness of the way leading to smooth space, and the weird setting in addition to a reduced language of less communication have an impact on both the readers and the audiences of Endgame, Not I, and Krapp’s Last Tape. While Beckett’s characters fail to be authentic men, the playwright manages to show what sort of a thing to exist is, and the fact that man is obliged to attain authenticity in order to avoid nothingness, and thus, he has to invent himself. In a way, Beckett makes use of Deleuzean negation in his characters. It is known that positive can only come from negative; the characters are like the negations of the audiences and the readers. Consequently, putting the experience of existence by means of his characters on the stage is what Beckett does so as to make authenticity accessible to the audience and the reader.
5.2 Summing Up
In this study a Deleuzean machine is set to motion on the working of the desiring-machines and the way the motor of this machine can operate accurately through life and death. Since for Deleuze everything exists only through its sexual connection and relation to other machines, thus existence and life is produced through connections. Equally, every new connection is keen to connect to other machines or to disorganize its previous connection for other novel connections at hand. Because all these connections and disconnections are recorded on the full body without organs, Deleuze and Guattari believe this body offers the amalgamation of life and death, in other words on the body without organs death produces life and life in turn produces death.
This chaotic instability of the functionality of machines is the ideal model of becoming. In this regard, the disorganization of one connection and the death of a machinic relation build no sense of a destructive aspect, rather, they can put forward innovative assemblages that are yet untaken. Therefore, becoming is the persistent condition within Beckett’s plays; also it becomes the only solution for Deleuzean belief which is inertia and solidity of being. Beckett’s plays are an anthology of life and death, organization and disorganization which are a representation of the model of life.
In chapter 2, Krapp’s Last Tape is studied in detail. The researcher traces how Krapp enters the world of becoming. Three kinds of becoming are involved here, becoming silence, voice, and tape. Krapp’s obsession with tapes can demonstrate the process of becoming through coming to the world of becoming silence and voice. Also how language gets fragmented in Beckett’s play comes into consideration. In fact, language does not convey any specific meaning and this is revealed in the way Krapp plays with words. Another project that is practiced is representation of smooth space in terms of Deleuzean program. In this play, chaotic world stands for the smooth space where nothing is in the right place and gloomy atmosphere is widwspread. The last tenet applied is BWO, as Deleuze argues for gaining freedom we need to stripe ourselves from body; similar program is seen in this play when Krapp shatters his organs by drinking alcohol and eating banana.
In chapter 3, Not I is discussed and followed in the act of applying Deleuzean tenets. Therefore, the researcher accentuates the structure of language and how non-signifying language operates in this play according to what Deleuze demands. In fact, it points out that no meaning can be gained in the woman’s speech and she is just trying to say some words without conveying any meaning. The next subversive theory that is considered here is negation of ego. As the title of the play indicates, there is no ego in this play and the woman is trying to negate it over and over during different procedures. Becoming is another procedure that is detected, becoming word, silence. These becomings pave the way for smooth space which uncovers that there is no order in this play and chaotic situation is dominant. The last trajectory is BWO where the woman’s body is seen fragmented through her speech. One can witness how Beckett puts his character in the position that just mouth can be seen and this can be the representation of striping her from organs.
In chapter 4, the last and the longest play comes into consideration. To study this play, the researcher tries to focus on language and how the language of the characters can represent Deleuzean projects in the world of regimes of signs. In this chapter, it becomes evident how useless words and long speeches can designate no meaning. Also, this fragmented language paves the way for smooth space and then nomadic characters. As mentioned earlier, this play is resembles Beckett’s other plays where chaotic world can be seen all over the stage. This can suggest how the characters in this atmosphere become nomads living in sheer hopelessness. Both inside and outside are dead and the characters are passing time for nothing. The last program applicable is BWO in which the characters are unable to do their daily activity. For instance, Hamm cannot walk and Clov cannot sit. Also Hamm’s parents are stuck and unable to move or do anything.
On the application of Deleuzean trajectories Samuel Beckett’s plays, many assumptions can be deducted. In this section a record of the most important