there is any significant differences between teachers’ perceptions about the effects of Recast and Metalinguistic Feedback in elementary learners’ pronunciation.
Since this study was investigated through a survey questionnaire, the researcher divided 30-item, 5-likert scale questionnaire into three groups. Each group consisted of ten questions. The first ten questions considered the teachers’ perceptions about the pronunciation errors which were not critical points in this study, the second ten questions considered the teachers’ perceptions about Recast effects on pronunciation and the third ten questions considered the teachers’ perceptions about Metalinguistic Feedback effects on pronunciation. These two groups of questions were the critical points in this thesis.
According to the researcher, these 5-likerts were valued in this way that: 1=strongly agree, 2=agree, 3=undecided, 4=disagree and 5=strongly disagree. Regarding to the selection of these likert scales, each participant was given a score, for instance if in the first question, a participant selected number 2, he got 2 scores from that question and etc. At the end these scores added up and a whole score was obtained.
With due attention to dividing the questions into three parts, the researcher investigated the score of each participant for each of the three groups separately. It should be considered b that for each three groups score 10 was the minimum score and 50 was the maximum score. Considering the values of the likert scales, as the score in each of the 3 groups got closer to 10, they got closer to options 1 and 2 and consequently to the agreement about the subject of that group and conversely as the score got closer to 50, they got closer to options 4 and 5 and consequently to the disagreement about the subject of that group.
Considering the obtained results from descriptive statistics and the collected data, the results of the perceptions on the questionnaire were investigated: firstly the mean of scores were given, the first mean which equaled to 30.2900 indicated the mean of scores which were given to 100 teachers for the first ten questions, the second mean which equaled to 25.4900 indicated the mean of scores which were given to 100 teachers for the second ten questions and the third mean which equaled to 35.0000 indicated the mean of scores which were given to 100 teachers for the third ten questions. Considering putting value on the likert scales by the researcher, it was observed that mean of answers in the second 10 questions was orderly less than first and third ten questions. So the researcher concluded that the teachers’ perceptions in answering to the second ten questions led to options 1 and 2 which means they have positive ideas about this group of questions. Since the second ten questions were related to the Recast questions, therefore the teachers’ perceptions about Recast were positive.
Secondly, the median of scores were given, these numbers were proved that the median of scores in the second 10 questions was orderly less than first and third ten questions.
Thirdly, the mode of scores were given, the mode number of the first ten questions was 31 which indicated the most frequently obtained score in the distribution was 31, the mode number of the second ten questions was 23 which indicated the most frequently obtained score in the distribution was 23 and the mode number of the third ten questions was 36 which indicated the most frequently obtained score in the distribution was 36. With due attention to these most frequently numbers, it could be concluded that the less number was related to the mode of second ten questions which really means the teachers` perceptions in this group of questions led to the options 1 and 2.
Fourthly, the standard deviations of scores were given. The standard deviation is the most commonly used measure of variability of scores in a distribution. As it speaks for itself, it is a standard figure which applies to the variability of all the scores in a distribution. In fact the dispersion rate of the scores of each three groups of questions were investigated in this part.
Fifthly, the variance of scores were given. Another commonly used measure of variability is the variance. Variance is defined as the square of the standard deviation. It also indicates the dispersion rate of the scores.
Finally, the minimum scores of each group of questions were given which consisted of: 16 for the first ten questions, 13 for the second questions and 20 for the third questions. These scores indicated that the least minimum scores were observed in the second ten questions which means these scores led to the most agreement about the effects of Recast on learners’ pronunciation. The maximum scores of each group of questions were given which consisted of: 46 for the first ten questions, 44 for the second questions and 50 for the third questions. These scores indicated that the most maximum scores were observed in the third ten questions which means these scores led to the most disagreement about the effects of Metalinguistic Feedback on learners` pronunciation.
In this study, in addition to the descriptive statistics based on the score, the researcher investigated the mean, median and mode according to the options the participant selected. It means that in this part, the researcher took the selected options into the consideration not the score that participant obtained. In this part it was estimated that that if in options’ evaluating which was from 1 to 5, the researcher regarded the mean of the options’ value 3, when the mean of a question was less than 3, the researcher concluded that the answers were mostly options 1 and 2 and conversely.
Considering the mean numbers of second ten questions which were all less than 3, it goes without saying that the most responses were mostly options 1 and 2 and it’s obvious that perceptions about these items were on the positive side.
Considering the median for the second ten questions, since the median is the score that 50 percent of the scores fall above and 50 percent of the scores fall below that score and the median of the questionnaires’ options of was 3, therefore the ascending and descending of this number indicated the way the respondents think.
The most median numbers of the second ten questions was 2, so descending of the number indicated that respondents agreed with options 1 and 2. This meant that the responses were either agree or strongly agree.
In the case of mode which was the most frequently obtained score in the distribution, about the second ten questions, the mode of six questions is 1, the mode of three questions was 2 and the mode of one question was 3. Therefore the most answers to these questions were 1 which was the sign of agreement about them.
Considering the pyramid, pie chart, bar chart and frequency tables which were elaborated in chapter 4, the frequency of the means of the second ten questions under 3 were more than the frequency of the means above 3, which means the participants who were in fact the teachers mostly agreed with the options 1 and 2. It indicated that most of the teachers agreed with the questions 11-20 and these questions were the ones which supported the perceptions about Recast.
In addition to the results of this study, a number of descriptive studies have examined the occurrence and nature of Recast, learners’ response to Recast and their noticing and interpretation of Recasts. They generally found that Recast occurred with high frequency in conversational interaction and pronunciation error correction. This fact alone may be enough to justify this study’s investigation into Recast.
Considering the mean numbers of third ten questions which were all more than 3, it goes without saying that the most responses were mostly options 4 and 5 and it’s obvious that perceptions about these items were on the negative side.
Considering the median for the third ten questions, the most median numbers of the third ten questions were 4, so ascending of the number indicated that respondents agreed with options 3 and 4. This meant that the responses were either disagree or strongly disagree.
In the case of mode, about the second ten questions, the mode of three questions was 5, the mode of six questions was 4 and the mode of one question was 3. Therefore the most answers to these questions were 4 which was the sign of disagreement about them.
Considering the pyramid, pie chart, bar chart and frequency tables which were elaborated in chapter 4, the frequency of the means of the third ten questions above 3 more than the frequency of the means under 3, which means the participants who are in fact the teachers mostly agree with the options 4 and 5. It indicates that most of the teachers disagree with the questions 21-30 and these questions are the ones which support the perceptions about Metalinguistic Feedback.
In addition to the results of this study, a number of descriptive studies suggested this type of feedback should be incorporated in the instruction of grammar, so that further elaboration on the types of structures being introduced could enhance the visual saliency and hence more efficient noticing and encoding of information in memory. So these studies also indicated that Metalinguistic Feedback was not very effective in correcting Pronunciation errors as well as Recast.
According to the first research question which was: What are the teachers’ perceptions about the effects of Recast on Elementary learners’ pronunciation? , the first hypothesis was formulated: Teachers don’t have any significant perceptions about the effects of Recast on Elementary learners’ pronunciation. Through investigating the descriptive statistics of the second ten questions and their frequency data, the null hypothesis was rejected. Therefore Teachers have significant perceptions about the effects of Recast on Elementary learners’ pronunciation and according to the statistics analysis they have positive perceptions about it and in this ground they consider it very important.
According to the second research question which was: What are the teachers’ perceptions about the effects of Metalinguistic Feedback on Elementary learners’ pronunciation?, the second hypothesis is formulated : Teachers don’t have any significant perceptions about the effects of Metalinguistic Feedback on Elementary learers’ pronunciation. Through investigating the descriptive statistics of the third ten questions and their frequency data, the null hypothesis was rejected. Therefore Teachers have significant perceptions about the effects of Metalinguistic Feedback on Elementary learners’ pronunciation and according to the statistics analysis they have negative perceptions about it and in this ground they don`t consider it very important.
The Friedman test is a nonparametric alternative to the one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. It means that if the