.088 .088 .154 .217 -.210 .145 .074 -.048 .064 -.013 -.150 .707 -.082

Q8 .052 .047 .021 .075 .093 .128 -.062 .225 -.132 .090 .106 .084 .743

Q2 .009 .188 -.031 .072 -.056 .091 -.013 -.374 .342 -.080 -.057 .063 .597

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

a. Rotation converged in 14 iterations.

The numbers which are marked in the above table are the ones that are grouped by the Principles Component Analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses a transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components. With due attention to point that the table categories are done completely, it can be said that this survey has construct validity.

Table 4.3. Reliability Statistics of the first 10 questions

Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items

.502 10

As Cronbach’s alpha number in the above table is .502 which indicates the consistency of the sample is in average level of acceptance. Therefore the first ten questions which are about teachers’ perceptions about pronunciation are reliable.

Table 4.4. Reliability Statistics of the second 10 questions

Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items

.583 10

As Cronbach’s alpha number in the above table is .583 which indicates the consistency of the sample is in average level of acceptance. Therefore the second ten questions which are about teachers` perceptions about Recast are reliable.

Table 4.5. Reliability Statistics of the third 10 questions

Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items

.628 10

As Cronbach’s alpha number in the above table is .628 which indicates the consistency of the sample is in average level of acceptance. Therefore the third ten questions which are about teachers` perceptions about Metalinguistic Feedback are reliable.

4.4. Descriptive Statistics of frequencies procedures

Before considering the Descriptive Statistics, it’s better to point out that in this study, each participant was given a score. This score was given by the adding up the likert scales that each participant has chosen. For instance if the participant has chosen the likert scale 1 in the first ten questions, his score would have been 10 which is the minimum score and if the participant chose the likert scale 5 in the first ten questions, his score would be 50 which is the maximum score. Considering the likert scales in this questionnaire which were 5 in number and were in this order: 1.strongly agree 2.agree 3.undecided 4.disagree 5.strongly disagree, it can be resulted that as the score got closer to 10, so it led closer to agreement with the questions, conversely as the score got closer to 50, it led closer to disagreement with the questions.

The Frequencies procedure provides statistics and graphical displays that are useful for describing many types of variables. The Frequencies procedure is a good place to start looking at your data: Statistics and plots, mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, range, minimum and maximum values, and histograms.

Table 4.6. Descriptive Statistics of 3 groups of the questions

first 10 questions second 10 questions third 10

questions

N Valid 100 100 100

Missing 0 0 0

Mean 30.2900 25.4900 35.0000

Median 30.5000 24.0000 36.0000

Mode 31.00 23.00 36.00

Std. Deviation 6.02234 6.27082 6.26680

Variance 36.269 39.323 39.273

Minimum 16.00 13.00 20.00

Maximum 46.00 44.00 50.00

The above table is the table of Descriptive Statistics which is related to adding scores of the participants in the questionnaire. In fact in this table, the scores of the three groups are investigated separately. In third line of this table the mean of scores are given, the first mean which equals to 30.2900 indicates the mean of scores which were given to 100 teachers for the first ten questions, the second mean which equals to 25.4900 indicates the mean of scores which were given to 100 teachers for the second ten questions and the third mean which equals to 35.0000 indicates the mean of scores which were given to 100 teachers for the third ten questions. Considering putting value on the likert scales by the researcher, it’s observed that mean of answers in the second 10 questions is orderly less than first and third ten questions. So the researcher concluded that the teachers’ perceptions in answering to the second ten questions led to options 1 and 2 which mean they have positive ideas about this group of questions. Since the second ten questions are related to the Recast questions, therefore the teachers’ perceptions about Recast were positive.

In the fourth line of this table, the median of scores are given, these numbers are proved that the median of scores in the second 10 questions is orderly less than first and third ten questions.

In the fifth line of this table, the mode of scores are given, the mode number of the first ten questions is 31 which indicates the most frequently obtained score in the distribution is 31, the mode number of the second ten questions is 23 which indicates the most frequently obtained score in the distribution is 23 and the mode number of the third ten questions is 36 which indicates the most frequently obtained score in the distribution is 36. With due attention to these most frequently numbers, it could be concluded that the less number is related to the mode of second ten questions which really mean the teachers’ perceptions in this group of questions led to the options 1 and 2.

In the sixth line of the table, the standard deviation of scores is given. The standard deviation is the most commonly used measure of variability of scores in a distribution. As it speaks for itself, it is a standard figure which applies to the variability of all the scores in a distribution. In fact the dispersion rate of the scores of each three groups of questions is investigated in this part.

In the seventh line of the table, the variance of scores is given. Another commonly used measure of variability is the variance. Variance is defined as the square of the standard deviation. It also indicates the dispersion rate of the scores.

In the eight line of the table, the minimum scores of each group of questions are given which consisted of: 16 for the first ten questions, 13 for the second questions and 20 for the third questions. These scores indicate that the least minimum scores are observed in the second ten questions which mean these scores led to the most agreement about the effects of Recast on learners’ pronunciation.

In the ninth line of the table, the maximum scores of each group of questions are given which consisted of: 46 for the first ten questions, 44 for the second questions and 50 for the third questions. These scores indicates that the most maximum scores are observed in the third ten questions which means these scores led to the most disagreement about the effects of Metalinguistic Feedback on learners’ pronunciation.

Figure 4.1. Frequency histogram of scores Q1-Q10

A histogram also has bars, but they are plotted along an equal interval scale. The height of each bar is the count of values of a quantitative variable falling within the interval. A histogram shows the shape, center, and spread of the distribution. A normal curve superimposed on a histogram helps you judge whether the data are normally distributed.

This histogram indicates that the most frequent scores on the first ten questions are more than score 30 and the bell-shaped curve is almost symmetric in the middle of the distribution. So the data are distributed normally.

Figure 4.2. Frequency histogram of scores Q11-Q20

This histogram indicates that the most frequent scores on the second ten questions are less than score 30 and the bell-shaped curve is not symmetric in the middle of the distribution. So the data are not normally distributed.

Figure 4.3. Frequency histogram of scores Q21-Q30

This histogram indicates that the most frequent score on the second ten questions is more than score 30 and the bell-shaped curve is symmetric in the middle of the distribution. So the data are normally distributed.

4.5. Test of Normality according to the questionnaire scores

For comparing the means of the three groups of questions (1-10,11-20, 2-30), the first the researcher has to investigate the normality of these three groups to appoint the correct way of analyzing.

Table 4.7. Tests of Normality according to the scores

Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.

third 10 questions .110 100 .005 .980 100 .139

second 10 questions .104 100 .010 .968 100 .015

first 10 questions .066 100 .200* .990 100 .661

a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.

This table includes two kinds of test which are Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk. The aim of studying these two tests is the investigation of the data distribution kind. With due attention to the sig value of the three groups’ scores these results are obtained: as the sig vale of the first ten questions and the third ten questions are more than .05, so the null hypothesis which states that the data are normally distributed is accepted and their data are normal but since the sig value of the second ten questions is less than .05, the null hypothesis is rejected and the data for this group is not normal.

Figure 4.4. Box plot of three groups of questions

Box plot is a useful visualization for viewing how the data are distributed. Box plot allows you to make selections that determine the type of chart you obtain. Box plots show the median, interquartile range, outliers, and extreme cases of individual variables. In this box plot the minimum and maximum of the scores are visible. The dark line in the middle indicates the median of each group.

4.6. Descriptive Statistics according to the selected options in the questionnaire

Table 4.8. Statistics of questions 1-10

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10

N Valid 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Mean 3.0400 3.2200 2.9700 2.9400 2.9300 3.1700 3.1900 2.9200 2.9400 2.9700

Median 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000 3.0000

Mode 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 3.00 5.00

Table 4.9. Statistics of questions 11-20

Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 Q19 Q20

N Valid 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Mean 2.5500 2.3200 2.7500 2.5600 2.5500 2.5600 2.3300 2.3300 2.7400 2.8000

Median 2.0000 2.0000 3.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 3.0000 3.0000

Mode 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00

Table 4.10. Statistics of questions 21-30

Q21 Q22 Q23 Q24 Q25 Q26 Q27 Q28 Q29 Q30

N Valid 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Mean 3.3800 3.5000 3.5100 3.3100 3.6300 3.5300 3.5300 3.5400 3.5300 3.5400

Median 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000

Mode 5.00 5.00 5.00 3.00 4.00 4.00a 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

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